Basic Tajweed Rules
LETTERS OF MUSTA’LIYAH (FULL MOUTH LETTERS)
1. There are 7 letters of Musta’liyah 2. These seven letters are always be read Mufakh’kham (full mouth) with a heavy sound in every condition. 3. These letters are also known as Mufakh'kham letters.
Qalqalah is a quality, which when pronounced, appears to have an bouncing sound,when the letter is saakin.There are 5 letters of Qalqalah .
If after any letter of Madd, there is no hamzah or jazam (sukoon) or tashdeed, then the letter of Madd will be stretched for one Alif. This Madd is called Maddul Aslee.
If after any letter of Madd, there is a hamzah or sukoon or tashdeed, then this Madd is called Maddul Farie.
If after tanween there is a saakin or mushadad letter and waqf is not desired (we want to continue), then one harakat of tanween will be taken out and a Noon with a kasra is put to join the next letter.This Noon is called Noon-e-Kitney.
LETTERS OF MADD (HUROOFUL MADDAH)
There are 3 letters of Madd ا ,و , ى. These letters will be Letters of Madd when; 1. Alif has a letter with a fatha before it. 2. Waaw is saakin and it has a letter with a dhammah before it. 3. Yaa is saakin and it has a letter with a kasra before it. Maddah letters are read by stretching one Alif (1 Alif is the time required in closing or opening of a finger normally).
A silent letter is a letter that is written but not read.
Izhaar means to pronounce the letters from their makhraj, clearly without any changes (without ghunnah).
: If after Noon saakin or tanween there appears letter Baa then Noon saakin or Tanween will be changed into Meem and read with ghunnah.
If after Noon saakin or tanween there appears any other letter besides the 6 letters of Huroofe-Halaqi, 6 letters of and the letter Baa, then Ikhfa will take place.The difference between Ghunnah and Ikhfa is that in Ghunnah a full sound comes from the nose where as in Ikhfa only a light sound comes from the nose.